Stefansson-Anderson expedition 1908-1912

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June 1, 1910. People. An old man here Ekallukpik, says he was a child when white men were here. They were ferried in kayaks across this river at camp about half mile nearer sea than present camp. They have heard that formerly they used to meet the Uallinergmiut for trade, before white men ascended river. Uallinergmiut said to be excellent people, possibly Baillie Islanders, or only Cape Lyon people. They never meet the Akuliakattagmiut now.

June 2. Point Mackenzie. Camped 6 A. M. at Point Mackenzie to wait a day for promised coming of Kirkpűk and family who are going towards (but not to) Dismal Lake. It seems no one going this year to the lake. If they do not come today, we shall strike for woods up the Coppermine and return to Bloody Fall "when the mosquitoes come" which is when people are said usually to go there.

Names. One man Atigiliox "named from a kabluna."

June 5. People East of the Coppermine. Next group of people east of the Coppermine habitually go to Napaktulik (tree-grown part of Coppermine) in summer. Richardson River "is said to have had" food on it and to have been peopled, "but it ceased to have food before my time" said Ekallukpik.

Rae River. The Pallirk (Rae River) has since very long ago (iń-il-1e-ran) been the home of the people in summer. Ekallukpik apparently the most intelligent and best informed man seen down here. Apattok had never heard of Koxluktaryuk (Hanbury's map) but E. could tell much of it though he had never seen it.

Fear of Guns. No one since Akuliakattagmiut has shown fear of our guns, but have on the contrary all urged us to use them on game.
Junela. Coppermine River. Rae River people were first we have seen, who were not at Cape Bexley last winter.

Found today two sod tent rings and spruce bough bedding of two Eskimo shaped tents of last summer on high hill by river. Put there either for deer lookout, or else on account of mosquitoes. Tan. says Kittegaryuit use "amisut" only of caribou, and only when very many. If only fairly many, then "amilraktut". If many birds, "oyamuyat" (u as in mute). Billy says deer "innuiaktut," birds amilraktut, if many. "Innuiaktut" is used by both B. and T. for people, though usual colloquialism at Kittegaryuit is "innuk!" "Amisut" used by Akuliakattagmiut etc., for all things over five, though when pressed they know "avinńran" (Kittegaryuit, arrvanilirit).

June 13. Ekallukpik the other day took triscuit for whale meat on seeing them first. He took my light hair as a sign that I was a very old man, saying, "You and I have lived a long time, our white heads show it."

His sled shod with whalebone. Pallirk (Rae River) sleds in general longest we have seen.

Campsites. Found numerous old campsites on hill alongside lake just north of us, probably a fishing lake. Deer and musk-ox bones.

June 17. All people we have seen speak familiarly of tuktuwîk and aivik, but none have seen them. None seem to have any notion of such an animal as imnak, though they use imnak for a cliff or precipice. The Akuliakattagmiut who do not eat meat or use skins of muskrat, have the name Kivraluk. Tan. describes bears to them in terms of Kivraluk but no sign they ever heard of such an animal. Neither did Akuliakattagmiut seem to have heard of a smaller okallirk than the hare.

June 19. Belief. Pan. says Kuwűk people hang afterbirth in a high tree. Among her own people a woman with a child on her back (i. e. less than about five years) must not eat kaksrauk (black-throated and redthroated loon); if she does her child will be unable to walk or be at least a poor walker.

June 19. Campsites. Found yesterday some eight or ten different places formerly campsites of Eskimo, mostly along small lakes lying about half a mile from river about six miles south, but one each on our river and the next one south, the one on our river at foot of rapid, all probably fishing places. Next river south has branch, comes from a lake lying parallel to mountains about two by a half miles. Found yesterday small river (ten yards wide, eighteen inches deep, five or six mile current) coming out of a chain of small, very deep lakes. Along two of these very large spruce a foot in diameter six feet up and over thirty feet high. Indians axings (sharp ax, winter cut) on trees here. This river lies parallel to main river for about two miles behind a range of peaked gravel hills, a few hundred yards further up stream on opposite side of main stream is a rather large river.

June 22. Tan. got back 12:30 P. M. so did not sleep, but kept on up small over. 1 P. M. came to river widening into a lake with one island, a hill, and three smaller ones low roundish lake, half by a quarter of a mile in transverse diameter. On shore, found tipi frame and inner cover of lard pair with Cree characters and the four names "Melvill, Hornby, McKinlay, McCallum." Large number of trees cut shows they were here for some time, and in chilly weather, as large logs used, twelve inches in diameter cut in eighteen inch lengths and not split. In a way disappointed at finding this, had hoped Melvill and Hornby were coming this summer and that we might meet somewhere.

June 23. Started 8:30 A. M. and turned towards home about noon as our time is up and no fresh signs of people. Old signs are plenty, a tent ring and firewood leavings on top almost every one of the big hills along river. Hill tops average over a mile apart. Most tent sites seen on very pinnacle of hills. There may be as many in lowland though we did not find them.

Campsites. Tan. yesterday found "over ten" meat caches of about three by five and four feet deep, made of rocks, and "plenty" house sites, but wood, bone arrow-head, etc. indicate twenty-five or more years. One case of stones set up at an angle to indicate direction campers moved up stream.

June 27. Tan. knows names for about one third of flowers and now a purple-red flower is called itkilo'yak and it was former practice at Kittegaryuit for small boys to chase around all day with bow shouting "itkillirk uvva!" when one was found, and competing to see who could shoot it down first with arrow, encouraged in this by elders as "long ago we used to fight the Itkilliks."

June 29. Started 5 P. M. moving camp S. Looked at chopped trees seen by B. and T. yesterday and think them all Eskimo work. Some cut up by roots for lamp rests and sled runners (?). On bank found pair of sled runners made last summer and left to dry.

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